The three types of diet; hypocaloric, normocaloric and hypercaloric.
Hypocaloric, normocaloric and hypercaloric diet. If I tell you that everything you've heard about different types of diet It can be summed up in these three concepts, surely you will think that I am kidding you.
It is not surprising that this is your first thought when you surely have in your head a real maze between the Keto diet, the paleo diet, the Scandinavian diet, the low carbohydrate diet or the fodmap diet among many other nutritional concepts.
The saturation of information is a reality that also affects sports and nutrition. Often we get so many stimuli and so much content that it is impossible for us to process and interpret it. For this reason and with the intention of simplifying in caloric terms the different types of diet that really exist I created this guide. An informative “refresh” that reminds us that for many variations and trends that may appear in macronutrients and micronutrients, there really are only three types of diet.
We start with the hypocaloric diet. The most aggressive diet of all and the one that in terms of difficulty is the most complicated to follow. The hypocaloric diet is also the diet that is used to lose weight.
As its name indicates, the hypocaloric diet refers to "inferiority" or "lack of" calories. This concept is linked to caloric deficit that we generate through diet, physical exercise, basal metabolism and NEAT.
The hypocaloric diet it consists of achieving a negative global count at the calorie level. That is to say, ingest fewer calories than our body "expends" What we are looking for with this diet is to generate a negative balance that in a controlled way allows us to lose weight.
This diet is used as the main tool to lose weight, but beyond what it can help you slim down It can also appear as a great ally to face periods of muscle definition.
As I mentioned at the beginning of the publication, it is the most demanding diet of all and must always be carried out in a controlled, scheduled and in the correct proportion.
In this sense, I recommend that you put yourself in the hands of specialized personnel. A dietitian - nutritionist will be able to prepare a healthy low calorie diet with a correct distribution at the macro-nutrient level.
Many people tend to confuse hypocaloric diet with lack of food or a constant feeling of appetite. It is true that at first you are likely to feel hungry and find it difficult to stay within the script.
The caloric deficit should always be moderate and of a specific duration. You cannot pretend to have a hypocaloric diet for life.
Overly aggressive low calorie diets can cause an unwanted rebound effect and lead to health problems such as anemia, fatigue, muscle pain, decreased libido, or other hormonal disturbances.
The normal calorie diet It would come to be in colloquial terms something like the "maintenance" diet. A diet that seeks the nutritional and caloric balance between what we eat and what we burn.
The daily balance should be as close to zero as possible and thus maintain a constant body weight.
The distribution of nutrients must always be carried out in a healthy way and although we have some room for maneuver, it is not recommended to abuse certain macro nutrients.
Obviously it becomes very complicated, if not impossible, to determine how many exact calories does a person need per day. Age, sex, weight or physical activity are factors that can greatly alter these values, so refining with a general calorie diet is impossible.
It is true that we have seen a large number of publications estimating over 2000 kcal the daily caloric expenditure for middle-aged, moderate-weight men, but all of these statements should be made with relative importance.
Time and the scale will tell you if you are really following a normal calorie diet or not. If you gain weight it will be because you are in a caloric surplus, while if you lose weight the explanation will be none other than the caloric deficit.
It is important that you leave a certain time frame to see the actual evolution of the weight since daily there are elements such as stress, fluid retention or dehydration that could alter the vision and interpretation of the result.
As a recommendation I would tell you to focus more on a weekly calorie balance than in a newspaper. At the end of the day, social relationships, unplanned sports activities or chores appear that can make it very difficult to comply with a normal calorie diet.
The hypercaloric diet it is the third and last variant on the list. A diet that focuses primarily on the calorie surplus. In generating a positive caloric balance which is customary to use in specific diets for gain weight or gain muscle mass.
If in the hypocaloric we ingested fewer calories than we burned, the exact opposite occurs here. In a hypercaloric diet more calories are ingested than are expended.
Obviously generating a calorie surplus is extremely easy. Industrial pastries, saturated fat or "junk" food in general provide an infamous amount of calories in an apparently small proportion.
The great difficulty of hypercaloric diets comes when making a healthy intake. Increasing calorie intake through natural foods is not so easy. A good specialist will be in charge of making a nutritional plan adapted to your real needs. If you are looking to gain weight it is important that you do it consuming quality food and not based on ultra processed. Otherwise, beyond gaining weight, you will significantly increase your body fat percentage.
Which diet is better?
As I mentioned at the beginning of the publication, these three diets are only in reference to the amount of calories. Obviously from here there are an infinity of variants that through macro and micro nutrients allow you to make different alternatives.
It is essential that beyond the total calorie count, keep a minimum control of ingested nutrients.
It is not necessary either that now you go crazy counting the grams of protein, fat or carbohydrates that you need exactly for each diet, simply try to take as much as possible a varied and healthy diet. Eating is one of the great pleasures of life, so take it easy and enjoy a good whim from time to time.
Choosing a hypocaloric, normocaloric or hypercaloric diet will largely depend on your short, medium and long-term goals.
As usual the hypocaloric diet is used to lose weight and lose weight, while the hypercaloric diet is planned for those who want to gain weight or gain muscle mass. The normocaloric, as I have commented previously, is in charge of establishing a long-term draw result.
Consider what is convenient for you in terms of health, what sporting and personal goals you can have and plan a diet with the nutritionist that provides you with the necessary energy.